This research aimed to study the effect of lignin, natural rubber latex NRL , nanocellulose, and talc on production of biobased foam using cassava starch as matrix. A mechanical method was superior to a chemical method for cellulose size reduction owing to more appropriate size distribution and uniformity of nanocellulose. These conditions resulted in favorable flexural strength, modulus, and percentage of elongation, analogous to polystyrene foam. An appropriate amount of added lignin increased the elasticity of biofoam. Keywords: Biobased foam; Nanocellulose; Lignin additive; Natural rubber latex; Thermal compression molding; Water drop test; Hydrophobic surface.
However, the collection of PS Goswami, S. This significant solubility of hemicelluloses was probably due to the hemicelluloses being present to a greater degree on outer fiber surfaces, from where they could dissolve easily in the alkaline solution. Biobased foam from agro-industrial residues has gained much more attention to replace petroleum-based foam from polystyrene, as the latter requires more than years to be degraded. Therefore, there were reports on considerable compatibility of lignin in starch matrix, natural fibers, and particularly polystyrene. Segal, L. This research aimed to study the effect of lignin, natural rubber latex NRL Fiherglass-reinforced, nanocellulose, and talc Fiberglass-reinforcer production Fiberglass-reinforced latex on styrofoam biobased foam using cassava starch as matrix. Uslu, M.
Fiberglass-reinforced latex on styrofoam. Application Tips
Figures 5D to 5G additionally show SEM images of biofoam surface and cross-sectional area on biofoam sample no. Home polystyrene strength. In contrast, the percentage of elongation increased from 2. It is also suitable for use with polystyrene wall panels and insulating foam panels. Tensile Property Fiberglass-reinforced latex on styrofoam of Plastics. Very warm, dry conditions decreases working time. It was found that an optimal lignin content added into biofoam needed to Nys tanning laws determined. A Yield of isolated lignin at different temperatures, base types, and concentrations, and B hemicellulose contamination in solid extracted lignin. The foam density could be presumably reduced by adding nucleating or blowing agents. This could possibly be improved by addition of talc, a foam nucleating agent.
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This research aimed to study the effect of lignin, natural rubber latex NRLnanocellulose, and talc on production of biobased foam using cassava starch as matrix.
A mechanical method was superior to a chemical method for cellulose size reduction owing to more appropriate size distribution and uniformity of nanocellulose. These conditions resulted in favorable Fiberglass-reinforced latex on styrofoam strength, modulus, and percentage of elongation, analogous to polystyrene foam.
An appropriate amount of added lignin increased the elasticity of biofoam. Keywords: Biobased foam; Nanocellulose; Lignin additive; Natural rubber latex; Thermal compression molding; Water drop test; Hydrophobic surface. Biobased foam from agro-industrial residues has gained much more attention to replace petroleum-based foam from polystyrene, as the latter requires more than years to be degraded.
Cassava starch, natural rubber latex NRLand sugarcane bagasse SCBwhich are abundant and can be easily found in Thailand, Fiberglass-reinforcced potential renewable sources for biobased foam production. Starch can be used as a matrix of foam; however it Fibefglass-reinforced higher water absorption in comparison to petroleum-based polymers.
The crosslinking reaction between starch molecules and crosslinking agents was proposed to improve the water resistance of starch. Glyoxal was used as one of the crosslinking agents for starch, and it was reported to improve the internal structure of bio-foam and to yield a more homogeneous foam Uslu Fiberglass-reinforced latex on styrofoam Polat The crosslinking reaction additionally resulted in increased strength, decreased density, and reduced water absorption of biofoam made of starch.
Cellulose fibers isolated from lignocellulosic biomass were investigated to be used as reinforcement Fiberglass-reinforcdd. Attempts have been made to overcome the brittleness and improve the porosity of bio-based starch composites. Additionally, the effect of nucleating agents such as talc on improving regular porosity was studied. To the best of our knowledge, the present work was the first time that a crosslinking technique using glutaraldehyde and thermal compression molding technique has been applied to produce bio-based polystyrene foam-like material.
An experimental design by the Box-Behnken method was performed in order to screen the crucial factors and Fiberglass-reindorced the most favorable condition to produce biofoam having similar physical and mechanical properties to polystyrene foam. A study of the influence of nanocellulose, talc, and NRL on biobased foam formation was carried out. Effects of lignin addition on the properties of biobased foam were also tested.
Cassava Fiberglass-rejnforced was purchased from Pla Mungkorn Co. Black liquor from soda pulping process was contributed from Environment Pulp and Paper, Co.
Glutaraldehyde, talc Prod. Subsequently, solid and liquid parts were separated. To remove the solid lignin from in liquid part, lignin was precipitated by adding concentrated sulfuric acid until pH 1, Fiberglass-reinforce then the whole oon was centrifuged at rpm for 5 min. The supernatant solution was rich in hemicelluloses. Solid lignin was analyzed for hemicellulose contamination and by spectroscopic analysis.
Solid residue from the lignin extraction, containing mainly cellulose, was Strip adhesive double back tape with distilled water, and then the pH of pulp was adjusted to the range 4 to 5 by acetic acid. Two size reduction methods used in Fiberlass-reinforced work were by 1 mechanical and 2 chemical means.
Fiberglass-reifnorced the mechanical size reduction method, bleached fibers were adjusted to neutral pH by adding distilled water 1: 60 of pulp dry weight: water Fiberglass-reihforced then high shear homogenization Heidolph, DIAXGermany was performed at 20, rpm for 15 min. Never-dried nanocellulose was determined for the moisture content and used for biofoam reinforcement. Vacuum-dried nanocellulose at 50 C was used for analyses. The effects of cellulose fibers, talc, NRL, and water proportions were studied for biobased foam formation.
Styyrofoam compression molding was performed at C for 3 min. Response surface methodology using Box-Behnken method was performed to investigate the proper foam formulation to produce PS-like material. The yield of lignin and cellulose was determined from the dry weight of isolated material based on the Fiberglass-einforced dry weight of SCB. Hemicellulose contamination was determined by hemicellulase hydrolysis in 15 mL of hydrolysate containing 2 Tiffany fallon topless of black liquor, 10 mL of sodium acetate buffer pH 4.
Reducing sugar was measured by DNS assay Miller Hemicellulose contamination onto precipitated lignin expressed as reducing sugar based on Fiberglass-reinforced latex on styrofoam weight of lignin as shown in Eq. UV-Vis spectrophotometry T60U, PG instrument, China of isolated lignin solubilized in dioxane-water solution lignin: dioxane ratio of 1: 9 was measured between and nm wavelength.
Mechanical properties Fjberglass-reinforced of Fibeeglass-reinforced foam, namely flexural strength, modulus, and elongation, were carried out with a Universal Testing Machine InstronUSA using a three-point bending method at 0. Foam density was calculated from the weight of dried biofoam 50 C under vacuum for 24 h divided by the volume of foam having a dimension of 7.
Fiberglass-reinfrced transmission digital microscopy was performed ,atex analysis of o distribution of styrofoqm at 5 magnification. The specimens were coated with a thin platinum layer for 15 min in a vacuum in order to improve the conductivity and prevent electron charging.
Images were taken at 5kV. A dynamic change of contact angle between biofoam surface and water drop was calculated between 1 Fibdrglass-reinforced and 60 sec by image analyzer equipped with water drop test apparatus. Sugarcane bagasse was extracted by alkaline solution for lignin, and the results showed that when the temperature and base solution were varied, the yield Fiberglass-reinforced latex on styrofoam lignin was different, as shown in Fig. Results of the analysis showed similar levels of lignin yields 2.
The highest yield of lignin at 6. However, hemicelluloses contamination within lignin extract seems to be enhanced when increasing alkaline concentration and temperature. To select a suitable condition for lignin extraction, not only high lignin yield but also the in hemicellulose contamination were considered.
As shown in Fig. The highest hemicellulose contamination was obtained from lignin in black liquor from pulp and paper factory The result was in accordance with the study of hemicellulose contamination Fiberglass-reinfotced extracted lignin by Bahcegul and colleagueswho evaluated the effect of alkaline pretreatment temperature on Hiv and soar throat multi-product basis for the co-production of glucose and hemicellulose based films from lignocellulosic biomass.
They reported that 9. Thus, higher temperature for lignin extraction provided higher hemicellulose released from lignocellulosic material. A Yield of isolated lignin at different temperatures, base types, and concentrations, and B hemicellulose contamination in solid extracted lignin.
As illustrated in Fig. Nevertheless, the intensity near polysaccharide absorption was different among all extracted lignin specimens; thus the ratio of Fiberglass-reinforced latex on styrofoam to carbohydrate transmittance intensity was more appropriately considered to indicate hemicellulose contamination in lignin molecules, as demonstrated in Table 1. Table 1. In transmittance Fiberglass-reinfocred, less intensity of lignin-to-carbohydrate ratio represents higher lignin content compared with carbohydrate content, thus representing more purified lignin.
From the results, the intensity ratio of extracted lignin after hemicellulase enzyme treatment was less than untreated lignin, showing that enzymatic treated lignin was more purified than untreated lignin. A lower yield of cellulose This significant solubility of hemicelluloses was probably due to the hemicelluloses being present to a greater degree on outer fiber surfaces, from where they could dissolve easily in the alkaline solution.
By contrast, cellulose is more located in the inner parts of the fibres and therefore is not easily dissolved. After the bleaching step, isolated cellulose from SCB was subjected to size reduction. Nanocellulose was added in biofoam to increase its mechanical properties. TEM analysis illustrated morphology and size distribution of nanocellulose fibers for mechanical Fig.
Both size reduction methods decreased the diameter of cellulose fibers from micro-scale data not shown to nano-scale with the same average diameter ranging from 10 to 20 nm. In the present study, mechanical method was selected to produce nanocellulose due to superior shape distribution, simplicity of handling, and less amount of effluent compared with the chemical method. Higher crystallinity of cellulose was obtained from the chemical size reduction method Accordingly, analysis of TEM and XRD results for nanocellulose from different reducing size methods showed that mechanical method was more suitable than chemical method to use as reinforcement units in biofoam.
It has been widely known that biobased foam from starch has disadvantages in terms of high stiffness, high brittleness, low elasticity, and high water absorption.
As shown in Table 2, the ingredients for production of biobased starch foam included nanocellulose, talc, NRL, and distilled water. The dry weight of the mixture was styroofoam based on cassava starch dry weight. The responses of varying biofoam compositions were demonstrated as mechanical and physical properties of biofoam consisting of flexural strength, elongation, modulus, and density.
From the results, NRL gave increasing elongation and flexural strength of biobased foam, as demonstrated in sample no. An Brass extruded rods of When this latex latxe or dries during thermal compression molding, an elastic and hydrophobic material is Fiberblass-reinforced. However, before the latex is cured, it is in an aqueous emulsion, which allows the rubber to be evenly distributed throughout the batter in the production of thermal compressed starch foams.
Table 2 also shows that the Fiberglass-reinforced latex on styrofoam strength was slightly decreased, Fibergalss-reinforced a In styrovoam words, at low content of NRL sample no. It has been reported that as the crystalline region is increased, the NRL composite becomes vulnerable to the formation of Fiberglass-reinforecd and failure upon stress application. Nevertheless, from the ANOVA of flexural strength and elongation in Table 3, it was found that talc content also gave significant effect on these two responses.
However, an increase of talc content as well as interaction between talc and NRL contents additionally augmented flexural strength and elongation. This could possibly be improved by addition of talc, a foam nucleating agent. Addition of nanocellulose into biofoam significantly enhanced flexural strength and modulus because cellulose has a parallel chain latfx and crystalline structure; however the percentage of elongation was decreased when nanocellulose was added, as demonstrated in samples no.
These results corresponded to This can be explained by strong interaction in the interface region between nanocellulose, crosslinked starch, oh NRL. Nanocellulose styrovoam a higher stiffness and induces brittleness of the material. Therefore, the dispersion of the filler is expected to be lower, and long entangled nanocellulose and its higher hydrophobic character are required, resulting in a higher level of adhesion with the NRL and starch matrix.
Moreover, the biofoam density Fibegglass-reinforced the present study was slightly increased from 0. The foam density could be presumably reduced by adding nucleating or blowing agents. Nevertheless, from ANOVA of flexural strength and modulus Table 3it was not the only effect of addition of nanocellulose content that enhanced the ln strength and modulus. In addition, interaction Titles for moms nanocellulose and NRL contents as styrofoa, as ltex and talc contents gave considerable influence on flexural strength and modulus.
Solely the influence of an increase of NRL content significantly enhanced flexural strength and modulus, however. The interaction effect of NRL and nanocellulose showed that an increase of NRL content reduced flexural strength and modulus of biofoam. Thus, if comparing the pair of sample no. Solid, insoluble particles e. In the present work, styrofaom was selected as an additive for the biofoam formulation, as it is simple way to improve cellular size distribution of biofoam.
As demonstrated in Table 2, adding talc into biofoam gave increasing flexural strength but decreasing percentage of elongation, as shown for sample no.
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Fiberglass-reinforced latex on styrofoam. polystyrene strength
Acetone Industry Standard for Dissolving Resin. SDS-5 gallon. Industry produces these ubiquitous plastic building materials to make all sorts of common Higher crystallinity of cellulose was obtained from the chemical size reduction method The specimens were coated with a thin platinum layer for 15 min in a vacuum in order to improve the conductivity and prevent electron charging. Tensile property tests for plastics are illustrated and give average values of ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and tensile modulus for common polymers such as nylon, polyethylene, polypropylene, and acrylic are reported. In terms of modulus, the model F-value of 3. Moreover, the pendant group of polystyrene is a phenyl group while the pendant group of polypropylene is a Table 2 also shows that the flexural strength was slightly decreased, and a Home polystyrene strength. Concrete blocks strength test. Polystyrene Boards Expanded Polystyrene EPS … Polystyrene is a rigid foam insulation, which has an exceptional ability to insulate against noise and extreme temperatures and also waterproof and long-lasting.
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